founded the Muslim Ottoman Empire in eastern Turkey; challenged the Byzantine Empire; came to dominate most of Turkey; renamed their capital city Istanbul; converted churches like the Hagia Sophia into mosques; eventually the Ottoman Empire extends from Greece to Persia to Egypt and northern Africa, Established in 1526 by Babur; Mughals quickly dominated the Indian sub-continent; Muslim but governed under a policy of religious tolerance, ruled Mughal empire 1556-1605; observed policy of religious tolerance; tried to improve the position of women by ending the practice of sati (suti); allowed Hindus to serve in government positions, Kong on the west coast of Africa; benefited by trade with Portugal; Kings of Kong converted to Catholicism, Chinese navigator who led fleets tharout the Indian Ocan all the way to East Africa a full century before the Europeans did; However, Chinese society turned inward and exploratory voyages stopped, God exists but plays a passive role in life. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. AP WORLD: MODERN. Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. Guidelines were tolerance, justice, and improvement of people's lifestyles; examples are Joseph II of Austria and Frederick II of Prussia who ruled absolutely but made attempts to tolerate diversity, increase opportunities for serfs, and take on the responsibilities ruling required, 18th century movement in art and architecture which imitated styles of ancient Greeks and Romans (think the White House, Monticello), Spain and Portugal were fighting over land in the Americas; Treaty of Tordesillas established a line of demarcation on a north-south axis; everything to the east of the line belonged to Portugal and everything to the west of the line belonged to Spain, Spanish officials at the top of the encomienda system; these were the ones who ran the system of forced labor instituted by the Spanish, Spanish system of forced labor for the colonies; provided peninsulares with land a specified number of native laborers; Peninsulares were supposed to protect the workers and convert them to Christianity; horrible abuses; slaves brought in to do the most difficult/dangerous jobs; relieve the burden on one group of people by imposing it upon another, Journey aboard ship from Africa to the Americas; overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, cruelty killed about 20% of the 13 million people who began the journey in Africa, Beginning in the 1400s, long period of world exploration by European Powers, English joint-stock company that dominated trade with India, especially the trade in tea, Dutch joint-stock company that controlled routes to the Spice Islands in modern-day Indonesia, theory under which countries actively sought to trade but tried not to import more than it exported; objective was a balance of trade; heightened need for colonies; really takes off during the Industrial Revolution, Re-instituted by Phillip II to oust heretics, Henry VIII of England broke with the Catholic Church; this act establishes the protestant Church of England with himself as its head; he took this drastic action so he could divorce his wife Katherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn to get a male heir, 1158-1603 CE; during life of Queen Elizabeth I of England; time of commercial expansion and colonization in the New World; England's navy grew to be the best in the world; defeated Spanish Armada; Sir Francis Drake first to circumnavigate the globe, After Stuart Restoration, Charles II becomes king; he acknowledges the rights of his people and agrees to the Habeous Corpus Act which protects people from arrest without due process, 1598 CE; issued in France by King Henry IV to provide religious tolerance after Catholics the French protestants called Huguenots had fought bitterly, During the Tokugawa period in 1635 CE; prohibited Japanese citizens from traveling abroad and foreigners from visiting Japan; remained in force for nearly 200 years, strict and rigid government in Japan that lasted from 1600 to 1868; political power rested in the shogun rather than the emperor; characterized by rigid social classes very similar to the caste system; reacted negatively toward Western influences with the persecution of Christians and the passage of the National Seclusion Policy, One of the great artists of the Renaissance; sculptor, painter, architect, poet; two of his well-known sculptures on the Pieta and the David; his best-known painting is a fresco (paint on wet plaster) on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel based on stories from Genesis, Renaissance artist who depicted the human figure as realistically as possible; regarded by scholars as a prime example of the "Universal Genius" or "Renaissance Man;" the Mona Lisa is his most famous painting; technological ingenuity showed in his conceptualization of a flying machine, a solar collector, an armored vehicle, and an adding machine, Wrote "The Prince" in which he postulated that rulers could use trickery and unethical behavior to increase their power; book was sort of a how-to manual for monarchs, wrote "Utopia" which described an ideal society in which everyone shared the wealth and in which everyone's needs were met; was a Christian humanist, Arguably the most famous European writer from the Renaissance period; his works exhibited humanism in the extreme by focusing on character strengths and flaws, comedy and tragedy; they also illustrated the era's interest with classical civilization, A German monk who according to legend posted his 95 Theses on the church door in Wittenburg in 1517; opposed the sale of indulgences; his teachings on the true path to salvation were in opposition to those of the Church; his teachings eventually led to the Protestant Reformation, Pope at the time of Luther's 95 Theses; outraged; order Luther to retract them; when Luther refused, Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther, Powerful French protestant who preached predestination; moved to Switzerland to build a Protestant theocracy in Geneva; Calvinist teachings spread from there; Scottish Presbyterians and French Huguenots were Calvinistic in their beliefs, English king who broke with the Church over his desire to divorce; he breaks with the church when the divorce was not granted and proclaims himself head of the church in England, Groups of people broke with the Roman Catholic church over their beliefs and began new churches based on their own interpretations of Scripture (now in vernacular languages because of the printing press), Catholic Reformation (counter-reformation).